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4 WAYS ON HOW TO ATTAIN THE ATTITUDE OF RIGHT THINKING

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4 WAYS ON HOW TO ATTAIN THE ATTITUDE OF RIGHT THINKING

4 WAYS ON HOW TO ATTAIN THE ATTITUDE OF RIGHT THINKING

Accept Change

For one to attain the attitude of right thinking, they must do this first thing first and that’s accepting change. They must agree within them that change is needed for growth to take full effect in them. If you change your thinking, you can change your life.

Even the popular Nazi dictator named Adolf Hitler is aware of the powers in one’s thought that he boasted saying “What luck for rulers that men don’t think”

Change Your Thinking

Having set you mind on a course for change, the next step you must do is to change your thinking.

For you to be able to change your thinking, you must pay a price to attain this changes and if your mind is fully made up on completing this journey, you should also know that change is not instant. you grow them, you nurture them just like a new born baby till it’s fully matured and gives birth to a habit in you.

Even Albert Einstein who is one of the best thinkers who ever lived, asserted, “Thinking is hard work that’s why so few do it” This is to let you know how difficult it’s going to be and because it’s diffcult, you have to use anything available that’s going to be of help to you so as to improve your thoughts.

Search for it

You desire a changed thinking? Then go search for it, search for good new ideas. The amount of good thinking you can do at any given time depends solely on the amount of good thinking you are already engaging yourself in.

Go all out for this changes you desire, start with thinking on where you want to be? how you want to be seen, who’s life out there you want to follow? (I simply mean have a mentor) and go all out for it.

Invest in it

Are your thoughts also based on Human capital investments?

You also know that whatsoever you invest in will bring forth either equal result or further results.

What I’m saying is that if you invest your time, your energy, your resources towards your own thoughts to be set on the right course, you will yield output or result with the changed mind you’ll end up with.

Just like what Napoleon Hills observed “More Gold has been mined from the thoughts of man than has ever been taken from the earth.”

So take your time on it and you will definitely end up being a great thinker for the human’s mind is like a diamond mine that never runs out and it’s priceless.

I recommend that you also read;

The attitude of right thinking, 8 forms of attitude, 4 steps to take for a successful life, and unlocking your true potentials.

The Attitude of Right thinking

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The Attitude of Right thinking
The Attitude of Right thinking.
The quest for self improvement is one that must be built on truth. You may ask. What difference does it make to have an attitude of right thinking? I have not seen anyone refer to attitude as a solution to any problem. Maybe I should just stop reading this, right now and do something better with my time. Pause a bit, right there is the reason you should get this now. The attitude of right thinking.

 

Many have been deluded by popular thinking, that somethings matter in life and others bear no value. Kindly answer this question,

What represents value to you, a million dollars or a right attitude?

Being realistic, no one will reject a million dollars for an abstract idea of attitude. It will be foolish to even think of it. Popular definition of reality puts money above everything else in many cases.

This is not reverse psychology but if you care to read to the end, I’ll break a secret that the rich and influencial have as their number one priority above everything they know.

A man or woman was once a boy or a girl, having aspiration and dreams and determing to make a mark, or at least live freely and have enough of everything he or she wants. But the truth is that most of this boy’s or girl’s early age has been feed with the notion that money will make that dream they have come true, it will give them the happiness they so desire, the satisfaction they pursue, the impact they want, it will answer every prayer. 99% of the population think this way, this is the major reason we have more poor people, who are nevertheless intelligent, passionate, talented, hopeful, diligent and will never give up, but what they lack is the ingredient that turns everything around and without which no positive attainment of any kind can be made.

This ingredient is A positive attitude.

Having an attitude of right thinking always bring forth unimaginable growth, you see yourself generating great revenue with this attitude, a problem solver and a person who create unimaginable opportunities. This attitude of right thinking will definitely take you to a whole new level both personally and professionally. It’s a life changing attitude.

If you are ready for this journey, we will be looking at the 8 forms of attitudes, how do one attain the attitude of right thinking? And how one can become a great thinker. All falls under, the attitude of right thinking.

4 steps to take for a successful life

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4 steps to take for a successful life
You want to build a successful life but you are not sure of what the do’s and dont is? Be calm for you have stumbled into the right website. In this session we will be looking into the 4 steps to take for a successful life. You should make out time to read unlocking your true potential after you are done with this.

1. Look after yourself 

Looking after yourself has to do with how healthy your sub-conscious mind is. The subconscious mind is extremely fast at processing while the conscious mind is slow.

It’s your hunger for greatness will determine how far it’s gonna impact.

Strong mental and physical health will aid in your battle to destroy a lack of self discipline.

Develop a positive self talk process as well as making sure you feed well and exercise on a regular basis.

Movement will help clear your mind.

2. Start small. 

If you best understood what i said in number 2 you won’t this difficult because having a proper plan will always keep of with what you have on ground and how to best utilize them. Life is all about phases or stages For example you playing a video game, you must kick off at level 1 not Level 300 or level 123 it must definitely be from level 1 so as to level up once you have out grown that stage or level.

Often when you lack discipline, it is down to thinking that you have to do it all at once.

Learn to break down tasks into manageable pieces. You’ll find that you get more done and be pleasantly surprised at how much more enjoyable it is.

 3. Hold yourself accountable.

Do not limit yourself accountability to only your folks, well wisher and friends because once they are not there you are totally out of control all in the name of confort zone.

It’s necessary you develop self accountability so as to puts yourself in control. You can identify your triggers and deal with them accordingly.

Master your own destiny.

4. Be Consistent.

What you invest in determines what you harvest from. You must keep in mind that repetition soon makes whatever you repeat a second nature. If you relent on constant practice you will hardly get good results from whatever you are trying to achieve and soon you will give up on that beautiful dream.

What you should never forget is that your project is your true love and she needs your daily love, attention and care. Until you see your project as a person you have fallen in love with distraction will never cease to keep your eyes off your project.

Be consistent, time will reward your efforts.

Think consistently, plan consistently, work consistently and believe in that project consistently.

Look, there will be days that don’t workout as planned but don’t let this ruin your overall plan.

Having read all this, don’t fail to engage on them and also ensure you read unlocking your true potential for it’s also going to guild you on this journey towards change you seek.

Unlocking your true potential

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Unlocking your true potential
You really want to be in control of your thoughts? Build a successful life? All you need to to is read this; unlocking your true potential.

Below i have explained 5 steps that’ll unlock your true potential only if you engage yourself on this steps.

Fasten your seatbelt for it gets interesting from here onwards.

1. Set Up Your Goal.

Without having a clear goal it’s difficult to define or will i say know exactly what you actually want. In 5 years time where do you want to be? Want do you want to achieve in life?

Also think extreme, After 5 years are you there? All you need to do is to put it in mind. Your mind doesn’t need an invitation to procrastinate.

Begin to visualise what it is you really want. Writing down your goal will help to bring it into reality.

2. Evaluate your time. 

Have a schedule on what to do at a particular time and stick to it, if possible have a diary that best keeps you on time.

Learn how to best utilize your time and ensure you squeeze the best out of it.

You often hear people say “I don’t have time” when in reality they go to work then spend the rest of their night mindlessly scrolling.

Plan out your day, there is enough time to enjoy yourself while also getting the important tasks done.

 3. Establish a clear plan.

What are your plans? Have you written them down? While writing down your plan think about how best to achieve it even if it’s three to four different plans but the all most be leading to them same goal.

You may know what it is you want but if you don’t know how to achieve it, the chances are, you will fail.

Outline a plan that breaks down each individual step you will need to attain your goal. Small steps lead to big changes.

 4. Build habits. 

Build a positive habit, build habits like always wanting to enrich your mind and your thoughts, reading books that’s only gonna make you grow.

For example if you start building a habit of always counting greater numbers and retaining memory of each number seen, you will see yourself in due time processing over 40 millions of numbers quicker and faster because it’s now habitual.

Habits make life 10x easier. The more you have to think about what you’re doing the greater chance that your mind will start to wonder on what you want to do.

Systems and habits remove the guessing and give you a clear step by step process to follow.

5. Strengthen your self confidence.

These has to with you visualizing yourself, knowing who you are, having a positive mind about who you are and what you do.

One thing the successful people in society all have in common is self confidence.

You need to develop the mindset that you are good enough to achieve what you set out to, otherwise why even try ?

You can do this.

Having read all this i hope you’ll engage yourself on this steps to unlocking your true potential.

8 Things every Over Thinker needs to know

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8 Things every Over Thinker needs to know

Do you spend most times thinking?

Are you actually thinking straight or you are lost in it?

Below is an article titled; 8 Things every Over Thinker needs to know.

 

1. Avoid Self Rejection.

Once you have welcomed the idea that whatsoever you do isn’t good enough that very moment you and paused the growth going on in your life. When I’m talking about growth i mean mental growth not physiological growth.

So you see an opportunity and you feel you don’t deserve it? Just Apply for it anyways there is no harm in doing so right?

You think that article of yours isn’t good enough because of grammatical structures? You need not to think much on this, Publish it anyway because no one is gonna come asking you to payback what you have spent on education.

Never overthink Yourself into Self Rejection.

2. The Problem is never the problem.

Most harm that befalls human are solely caused by them and there thoughts.

Very few of them is caused by reality, what actually happened and it’s outcome.

The mostly see every single thing as a problem instead of them viewing it as an opportunity by so doing there negative thought becomes the problem the have been fighting.

3. Silence and Time.

You need to be cautious of your time even if you need to think, it should be done with lesser time.

Ensure that it’s been done at the right time and space because time and space works hand in hand. So whenever you want to think for a solution, your answers lies in time, silence and a clear mind.

You are only allowed to view it as a problem if you have a solution for it, if not then isn’t a problem at all.

 4. An Important Question.

When you start throwing criticism on yourself for previous mistakes, or you viewing problems and disaster around you, all you need to do is question yourself.

Can i do anything right now to undo what i have done in the past? Or is there something special i need to done right now to positively impact my future?.

The answer to these questions lies within you.

If yes, get it done or If No, let go of it.

 5. The Power Of Now. 

You need not to overthink for a brighter future neither will it give you a better past.

All you have to done is to face your NOW.

whatsoever you do NOW will determine how positive that future of yours will be and also can make right of your past.

The past will forever remain the past so it has no power over your Present.

 6. Acceptance is Peace.

Accept reality because no amount of anxiety will change your future and no amount of regret will change your past.

There is so much Peace of mind in Acceptance.

Accept that imperfection exists

Accept uncertainty

You need not to understand it just accept the reality.

7. Health is of the mind.

So far as your thoughts drives towards negativity, you will never experience good health, doesn’t matter if you do hit the gym twice a day or you have got a nutritionist who is in charge of what you eat.

All you need to do is to channel your thoughts towards positivity because Good health only measured by quality of our thoughts and how peaceful your mind is.

8.Fact check your thoughts.

Don’t welcome negative thoughts because they will create negative scenarios in your mind that will only reflect, fears, worries and insecurities.

A wise man said think before you speak.

So it’s important to always fact check your own thoughts before accepting them.

Your negative thoughts will give you stories that aren’t true.

How to gain total awareness (Visualize Yourself)

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How to gain total awareness (Visualize Yourself)
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4 steps to take for a successful life Unlocking your true potential

I’ll start by re quoting Lao tzu’s quote.

He said A journey of a thousand Miles begins with an initial step, and this initial step is the most important of it all because it’s does much more than action, it’s an open declaration to the universe that we are willing to turn around, leave the dark lands of mediocrity and the crowd, to rectify the course, with our faces turned to the sun to venture determined for a new land. So we’ll be talking on how to gain total awareness (Visualize Yourself)

it simply means that you are fully ready both mentally and physically open to learning. You have got that total awareness and it will keep rising the more you engage towards that initial step/action you have taken.

You have opened the eyes of the heart which can connect to things and people both high and low, far and near and which ever dimensions the get to find themselves in.

 

FACTORS THAT HINDERS TOTAL AWARENESS.

1. Confusion.

In our world filled with confusion which is caused by lack of awareness or oneself. The presence of confusion will Always take away the sense of transcendence….

Including sense of understanding human beings in various form.

2. Hatred.

Another factor is Hatred.

Hatred is an extreme of the first one i mentioned and that’s Confusion. That person happens to be so lost on not knowing who he/she is that they look around so as to find who to blame and who to hate. That’s why our world is filled with prefabricated hatreds between men and women, White and black races, Christianity and Islamic crisis, Red and facha, Pure and not pure, Vaccinated and anti- vaccine. They don’t want to return to that Beautiful truth that we are all One. Same blood forget them generic differences, same flesh forget them physiological differences and conditions, same eyes, same tongue, and same cells found in the same body.

So Why the confusion? Why the hatred?

Reason is because they don’t understand there actions and they worsen it with indoctrination

The forgot to run there thoughts on the simple fact.

This world where we came into existence, same world we will die and be born again and again until our mission is been moved into other planes of reality.

 

We program ourselves through the perspective we choose by the things we see and experience. Society only creates the platform and because you lack awareness you end up dancing to the societies tune. You are meant to choose what to play and how you want to play.

Now its only funny when you hear it and really painful when you think about it.

How do i break free from unawareness?

If you have patiently read up to this part I’ll say your mind is totally made up to take that huge step.

• you must realize everything is programming.

we should be able to choose what to tune into. Many don’t want to take ownership over their life they tend to operate life mostly on autopilot reliving much of life stuck in one place with very little change.

They repeatedly run the same program over and over again without updating. For example, our phones operate on a very simple algorithm give them what interest them. My phone feeds me all kinds of educational and spiritual info because that’s what interest me. The biggest issue is the auto pilot operating system.

If you weren’t tuned out I couldn’t subliminally get to you because you would be paying attention on the junks that interest you at that moment and you really can’t explain vividly why you are doing such. It comes down to how do you want to play the game.

Slave to the system as it was designed to do or take charge and overcome the system and be your own person? In the moment and present.

4 Things That Must Be Done For One To Excel

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4 Things that must be done for one to excel.
In this session I’ll be talking about, 4 things that must be done for one to excel.

Most people struggle with this everyday and for you to be reading this to this very moment means that you desire change in your life and after reading this you will definitely see changes in your life.

1. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THINKING AND BELIEVE

Thoughts makes you to picture that action if it can be done or not and for one’s thought to be channelled towards taking action base on what your mind has pictured, one must have a positive mind.

You must believe that all things is possible and that you can do it.

Once you Have believed that you can do it, immediately you find yourself doing it with ease because both your concious and subconscious mind is in agreement.

Don’t say I think i can do it but rather say i believe i can do it.

2. DON’T LIE TO YOURSELF

Most people lie to themselves subconciously because the have built a habit that’s always going to be used as a self defense even if the truth is been revealed to them.

For instance, most people settling for less in life and when asked they will reply you with I don’t have much of a choice meanwhile there’s a million opportunities everywhere but they allowed there environment upbringing to rub off on them.

While some will be given the opportunity be will end up rejecting saying i have to be perfect. All these are lies one tells to him/herself.

3. BE THE DRIVER OF YOUR LIFE NOT A PASSENGER

What this simply means that you should be in charge, be in control of your life.

What’s it you want to do?

What’s that thing that you must accomplish on earth that if not done you know that your life on earth wasn’t a fulfilled one?

Where do you want to go?

What do you want your life to be like?

If you can answer all this very well and pen your answers down then you are in control of your life.

Being a passenger is doing the things passengers in a moving vehicle does which is exploring the views around them, not focused on where they are going to, always waiting for when the driver to take them to where they want to.

It simply means you living a purposeless life, not having what to do with your time, not knowing what next to do because your don’t have any activities, you just sitting, and whining away your time and in some cases they let external factors determine who you are and where you want to go.

4. DON’T FALL FOR THE TALENT GAME

Being talented don’t mean all it’s well neither does it mean that you are perfect at what you do nor will definitely reach your goals. Talent without curiosity and obsession will keep you moving at a slow pace compared to one who is talented and builds in curiosity and obsession to it.

For instance on who is talented and only relies on his/her talent will only be moving at Arithmetic progression while the talented fellow with curiosity and obsession flies on geometrical progression.

8 Forms of Attitude that works

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8 forms of attitude that works

Wheresoever you get to find yourself today is the resultant of your attitude.

Attitude has a very important role to play in your life than Action because it’s with this right attitude you will be able to act right at every phase you find yourself in.

In this session, we will be talking about the 8 forms of attitude that works.

• Attitude Of Affection.

This is the first form of attitude most people get to experience, to some it’s positive while to some it’s negative.

It’s an attitude that give one the ability to express one’s feelings, this we mostly pick it up from home i believe you have heard of this saying which says “charity begins at home”.

This attitude enables you to care for something or someone. This form attitude most be done out of love for love conquers all and without love it all turns out to be deceptive which the person out there could easily see. So it’s an attitude expressed to others out of love

• Attitude Of Royalty

This is an attitude expressed to oneself.

With this form of attitude you will be fearless and a fear factor to people out there because you are acting base on the knowledge of who you are and you being aware of the powers within you.

This sense of attitude can only be expressed by a person who has a clear imagine of his/herself.

• Attitude Of Responsibility

With this sense of attitude you will end up being a doer. Attitude of responsibility gives you the right sense to be in charge of your life and act accordingly.

People who lacks this sense of responsibility always waste there time on complains, wishes, laying blames on everything around them, gossiping about others and there lifestyle, thinking and hoping for things to get better, forgetting that things will only get better, if you act according to what you desire. So attitude of responsibility keeps nobody else in charge but you.

• Attitude Of Consistency

The major reason why most people in life haven’t break forth is because they ain’t consistent on what they are doing or they are being consistent on what’s not going to be profiting to them.

The attitude of consistency enables you to build on the basic knowledge of what you desire for instance you what to be a great keyboardist, all you have to do is be consistent on practicing with the keyboard and you will be great.

Attitude of consistency takes nothing much but discipline, making sure that you’re able to get it done every single day and by so doing it turns out to be a habit built.

7 ways on how to deal with procrastination

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7 ways on how to deal with procrastination

Stop thinking that procrastination means resting for the mean time and that you’ll end up doing it later and see procrastination as a thief who comes to rob you of your precious time that should be used for something far better.

Once you procrastinated, you end up not being in charge of your future. Below are the 7 ways on how to deal with procrastination

CREATE POSITIVE HABITS. 

In other to create a positive habit you have got to find that spark for example something that gets to motivate you then you work on that motivation, mind you that motive have got to be a positive one. Through motivation will you be able to create that habit.

An illustration on how habits are created.

You have got a car, and you bought that car to save your time, and ease of movement.

Now you have got the car but you can’t drive so you have really need to learn how to ride a car. (From here your motivation is towards learning how to ride a car is because you own one) while learning, that’s motivation put into action and the more time to spend driving the more your mind and body adapt towards that action (driving) and they more you body and minds are being bonded into that action the stronger that habit of driving is being formed that way you need not to guess what step to take or what to do because it’s so clear to you on what processes you should take.

So you create habits through reputation and your get go is to find what motivates you.

So Habits makes life 10x easier.

• HAVE A VIVID PLAN.

Making out plans doesn’t necessarily means plans on what you want, making out plans is all about planning on how to achieve it, how to get it done because without knowing how tp achieve it you will definitely fail cause that’s the only chance you have.

You plan should be properly outlined that way you will be able to know what step you need to take that will lead to the other step.

• KILL EVERY NEGATIVE SELF TALK.

Don’t you ever talk down on yourself. Why talk down on yourself if you sure know that you wouldn’t dare such to your folks out there?

Have a written note or declaration about yourself, words written on this notes should be everything positive you have ever wished for. Read this positive note about yourself whenever negative self talk comes into your mind by so doing your mind will be rewired into thinking and saying positive things about yourself and you will likely see them manifest.

• FUEL YOUR BODY.

Ensure your body is well nourished with the right set of meal so as to keep your body and mind in harmony.

• AVOID EXCUSES.

The only way to avoid excuses is by responsible for that situation that you find yourself in, that’s only how you can be the boss of your own life aside that isn’t living.

Ensure you also surround yourself with people who don’t go about making lame excuses of what life gave to them.

make it known to negative people around you that you feel so uncomfortable towards there behavior and ditch them if they continue acting that way towards you after several warning. Make the most out of your life.

• HAVE AND WRITE ON A JOURNAL.

Ensure you have a journal and always pen down every idea or thought that flows into your mind that way you have eased off that thought and focus on another.

A journal keeps you focused, helps you store good memories, thoughts and also aids you towards having a good plan on what action you need to take.

• CHANGE YOUR MINDSET.

A task becomes so much easier to accomplish once your perspective towards it has changed.

For an instance you saying “i might be there at choir rehearsals today” instead change your thinking towards ” i will be there at choir rehearsals today”

Now you can see the difference in this two sentences.

Having read all the 7 ways on how to deal with procrastination, i hope you practice them.

Phases of Menstrual cycle and Fertilization.

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Phases of Menstrual cycle and Fertilization.

 

Phases of Menstrual cycle and Fertilization.

 

Importance of fertilization.

(a) It acts as a stimulant for the egg to finish maturing.

(b) Through recurrent mitotic division, it stimulates the ovum to grow into a new person.

(c) Fertilization restores the zygote’s diploid number of chromosomes (46 in man) by adding the haploid set of chromosomes from the male.

(d) It increases the metabolic activity of the egg.

 

(e) It mixes the personalities of two parents while introducing new elements. As a result, contribute to evolution.

(f) Sperm sex chromosomes are either X or Y, which aids in sex determination.

(g) Fertilization membrane, produced after sperm entry, prevents new sperm from entering.

(h) The axis of division is set by the copulation path.

 

Cycle of Menstruation

(1) Humans, apes, and old world monkeys all have menstrual periods.

(2) Menstruation is the bleeding of adult females’ uteruses at one lunar month intervals.

(3) Menarche is the start of menstruation or the first (1st) period.

(4) The start of menstruation differs from person to person. It usually happens between the ages of 12 and 15.

 

(5) The Menstrual Cycle is the sequence of events that occurs from one menstruation to the next.

(6) In human females, menstruation occurs every 28/29 days on average.

(7) During the midst of each menstrual cycle, one ovum is discharged (ovulation).

(8) Certain hormones, some of which are released by the pituitary gland, regulate it.

(9) releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus stimulate the pituitary gland.

(10) The pituitary gland’s hormones have an effect on the ovaries. The ovaries’ hormones have an effect on the uterus’s walls.

 

Menstrual Cycle Phases

The menstrual cycle is being grouped into four phases:

 

(1st Phase ) The Menstrual Cycle:

(i) Menstruation occurs on days 3-5 of a 28-day menstrual cycle.

(ii) LH production from the pituitary gland’s anterior lobe is diminished.

(iii) The corpus luteum degenerates when this hormone is absence, resulting in a reduction in progestrone synthesis.

(iv) Oestrogen production is also lowered during this time.

(v) The uterine endometrium breaks down, and menstruation begins.

 

The menstrual flow is made up of cells from the endometrium, blood, and unfertilised ovum.

 

(2nd Phase ) Follicular Phase:

 

(i) In a 28-day cycle, this phase normally comprises cycle days 6-13 or 14.

(ii) The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates the ovarian follicle to secrete oestrogens.

(iii) Oestrogen causes the endometrium of the uterine wall to proliferate.

(iv) Rapid cell proliferation thickens the endometrium, which is accompanied by an increase in uterine glands and blood vessels.

 

(3rd Phase ) Ovulatory Phase: 

(i) In the middle of the cycle, both Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) reach their highest levels (about 14th day).

(ii) The amount of oestrogen in the blood increases.

(iii) There is a great secretion of Luteinizing hormone (LH) which causes graffian follicle rupturing and, as a result, leads to ovum discharge.

(iv) Luteinizing hormone does, in fact, cause ovulation.

 

Luteal Phase (4th Phase ):

(I) Cycle days 15 to 28 are included.

(ii) Progestrone is secreted by the corpus luteum.

(iii) The endometrium thickens .

(iv) The uterine glands begin to secrete.

 

Menstrual Cycle Hormonal Control

(i) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increases the production of oestrogens by ovarian follicles.

(ii) Luteinizing hormone (LH) promotes progestrone secretion in the corpus luteum.

(iii) The increased synthesis of oestrogens causes the menstrual phase.

(iv) Luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for ovulation.

 

(v) The increased production of oestrogens causes the proliferative phase.

(vi) The secretory phase is brought on by a rise in progestrone production.

The advantages Blood Group Testing

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The advantages Blood Group Testing

The advantages Blood Group Testing

Introduction

Knowing your blood group helps to prevent a while lot of crisis in the future which includes not having a sickle celled child and other factors too.

In this session I’ll be talking about the advantages Blood Group Testing, and what’s gonna result to if ignored.

The blood is divided into groups based on the presence and lack of antibodies.

In addition, the presence and absence of hereditary antigenic compounds are taken into account while classifying.

Blood group types are inherited and reflect both the father and the mother’s contributions.

 

ABO Blood Group System

The ABO Blood Group System is a system for identifying blood groups.

Because any person over the age of 6 months has clinically significant anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies in their serum, ABO remains the most important in transfusion and transplantation.

 

Antigens and Antibodies

Antigens and antibodies are typically found in human blood.

There are two types of Antigens which happens to be Antigen A and antigen B.

There are also two types of antibodies which are Antibody A and Antibody B.

These Antigens will only be found in red blood cells, while antibodies will also only be found in white blood cells.

 

All humans can be grouped into one of three blood groups based on their antigen properties:

1. Blood Group A antigen A and antibody B

2. Antigen B and antibody A in blood group B

3. Antigen A and antigen B are present in blood group AB, but no antibody is present. 4. Blood Group O has no antigen but does have antigen A and antibody B.

When it comes to transfusions of human blood, the ABO system must be taken into account.

Karl Landsteiner was the first to discover the ABO blood group systems in 1901.

 

System of Blood Groups (Rh)

The presence or absence of the Rh antigen, also known as the Rh factor, on the cell membranes of red blood cells is used to identify blood groups (erythrocytes).

 

One is said to be Rhesus (Rh) factor positive if a certain protein is been found at the surface of your blood cells. If your Rhesus (Rh) factor test is negative it simply means the absence of this Protein.

 

Another important blood-group system is the Rh system (the meaning of Rh is Rhesus). When receiving blood transfusions, it is critical to match the Rh system.

Rh antigen was first discovered in Rhesus monkeys, hence the name Rh factor/system.

Rh negative (Rh-ve) refers to someone who does not have Rh antigen, while Rh positive (Rh+ve) refers to someone who has.

 

Rh positive happens to be the most common in the World. Having a Rh negative blood type is not a disease, and it usually has no negative consequences for your health. If you’re Rh negative and your kid is Rh positive, you’ll need to take extra precautions during your pregnancy (Rh incompatibility).

 

Note: Either parents can contribute to the Rh factor there child with end up having.(could be positive or Negative). Below we’ll talk about.

The Importance of Blood Group Testing

 

The significance of the RH Blood Group test.

 

• If both the mother and father’s Rh factors are positive, the child’s Rh factor will also be positive, thus no precautions are necessary.

• If both the mother and father’s Rh factors are negative, the child’s Rh factor will also be negative, thus no precautions are necessary.

• If the mother’s Rh factor is positive but the father’s is negative, the child’s Rh factor might be positive or negative, therefore no precautions are necessary.

• If the Rh factor of the mother is negative and the Rh factor of the father is positive, the child may be at risk.

 

• If the mother’s Rh factor is negative and the father’s Rh factor is positive, the infant could be Rh positive or Rh negative, necessitating the administration of Rh immune globulin ( The immune globulin prevents your body from producing Rh antibodies during your pregnancy.) Then if your child happens to be Rh positive, you’ll need to get injected again with “antiD” soon after the child’s birth to stop the mother’s blood cells from developing antibodies that will attack the red cells of a Rhesus positive kid in the future. Nothing happens if a baby is born Rh Negative.

 

If it’s her initial pregnancy there is no cause for alarm. This is because the child’s blood does not normally get to be mixed with that of the mother during pregnancy; Although, At the course of childbirth, the child and the mother’s blood will definitely mix, and the mother’s body will immediately begin to produce Rh antibodies because the Rh protein from the child is perceived as a foreign substance, which is where Anti- D comes into play.

 

Resultant of Rheus Rh factor Mismatch.

If the blood of a Rh negative mother comes into contact with the blood of a Rh positive foetal during pregnancy, it can result in:

 

Difficulty in child birth

Miscarriage

Abortion

Ectopic pregnancy: This occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, generally in a fallopian tube.

Trauma to the abdomen during pregnancy.

A molar pregnancy: This is a noncancerous tumour that develops in the uterus that must be removed.

All what you have read it’s the importance of blood group testing.

Volumes and Capacities of the Pulmonary System

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Volumes and Capacities of the Pulmonary System

Volumes and Capacities of the Pulmonary System

Respiratory volume are as follows:

 

(I) Tidal volume (TV)

It’s simply referred to as regular breathing when no force or pressure is applied.

This is the amount of air that is frequently breathed or expelled in a single breath without expending extra effort or the volume of air that is normally inspired or expired.

For instance, as you read this great post, you are involuntarily inhaling and exhaling air without exerting any force. Another time is when you’re asleep.

 

It’s 500 ml in a healthy adult, 15 ml in newborns, and 0 ml in foetuses.

 

(ii) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): 

After tidal volume has happened, this is the additional air forced by inspiration.

For example, after finishing a 100-meter race, you tend to forcibly inhale air (more like taking a deep breath) into your lungs, inhaling more than 500ml of the normal tidal volume that most adults do.

IRV stands for excess inhaled air and ranges from 2500 to 3100 ml.

 

(iii) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

In addition to the 500 ml of air inhaled, one can push out 1100 ml of air.

Expiratory reserve volume refers to the additional air that can be exhaled through voluntary or involuntary application of pressure.

For example, one might exhale more than 500ml of normal Tidal volume of air to apply pressure to his or her clogged nose, which is interfering with normal breathing (tidal volume) Note that in circumstances like cardiac arrest or heart attack, this might happen involuntarily. (1000–1100 mL, with forcible expiration providing more air).

 

(iv) Reserve volume (RV)

Having forcefully exhaled air ( Expiratory reserve volume) which definitely will exceed 500ml, the total amount of air Reserved in the lungs is known as RESERVE VOLUME/RESIDUAL VOLUME. 

After a vigorous expiration, there is still a significant amount of air in the lungs. Spirometry cannot be used to determine this.

Furthermore, after violent expiration, approximately 1100 to 1200 ml of air remains in the lungs.

The following are the respiratory capacities:

(i) Total Lung capacity (TLC)

In order to figure out how much air you can take in, you’ll need to know your overall lung capacity.

Except for Reserve Volume (RV), which must be known and measured using a spirometer, all four lung volumes must be known and measured using a spirometer.

 

If the Tidal Volume (TV) is 500ml, the Inspiratory Reserved Volume should be the average of 2500-3100, as previously indicated, leaving us with 2800, with Expiratory Reserved Volume being 1100 and Reserved Volume being about 1200.

As a result, TLC equals TV + IRV + ERV + RV.

500+2800+1100+1200= 5600 TLC

The total lung capacity (TLC) is then estimated to be around 5600~5800.

(ii) Inspiratory Capacity (IC), i.e. TV + IRV

The outcome of combining inspiratory reserve volume with tidal volume is the result (IC).

It’s the entire amount of air a person can inhale with his lungs stretched to their greatest capacity.

The volume of I.C is said to be between 3300 and 3500ml.

(iii) Expiratory Capacity (EC), i.e. TV + ERV 

The sum of the Expiratory reserve volume and tidal volume results is the total volume (EC).

E.C is said to range between 1600 to 1800 ml.

(iv) Functional residual capacity (FRC):

Simply add the Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) to the Reserved volume (RV) to get the functional residual capacity (ERV + RV).

It’s simply the amount of air left in the lungs after normal expiration, which is estimated to be around 2300ml.

(v) Vital capacity (VC):

Simply add the Expiratory Reserve Volume to the Inspiratory Reserve Volume to the Tidal Volume (IRV + ERV + TV) to determine this.

It’s also the greatest amount of air that may be inhaled or exhaled after forced expiration or inspiration, which is around 4400-4600ml.

Ans204 functions of macronutrients